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|Chapter Name||Reproductive Health|
NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Multiple Choice Questions
Single Correct Answer Type
1. The method of directly injecting a sperm into ovum is assisted by reproductive technology called
(a) GIFT (b) ZIFT (c) ICSI (d) ET
Answer. (c) Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a method in which embryo is formed in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
2. Increased IMR and decreased MMR in a population will
(a) Cause rapid increase in growth rate
(b) Result in decline in grcfwth rate
(c) Not cause significant change in growth rate
(d) Result in an explosive population/exp
Answer. (b) Increased IMR and decreased MMR in a population will result in decline in growth rate.
3. Intensely lactating mothers do not generally conceive due to the
(a) Suppression of gonadotropins
(b) Hypersecretion of gonadotropins
(c) Suppression of gametic transport
(d) Suppression of fertilisation
Answer. will not lead to conception.
4. Sterilisation techniques are generally fool proof methods of contraception with least side effects. Yet, this is the last option for the couples because
i. It is almost irreversible.
ii. Of the misconception that it will- reduce sexual urge/drive
iii. It is a surgical procedure
iv. Of lack of sufficient facilities in many parts of the country
Choose the correct option:
(a) i and iii (b) ii and iii
(c) ii and iv (d) i, ii, iii and iv
Answer. (d) Sterilisation techniques are generally fool proof methods of contraception with least side effects. Yet, this is the last option for the couples because of (i),
(ii) , (iii) and (iv).
5. A national level approach to build up a reproductively healthy society was taken up in our country in (a) 1950s (b) 1960s (c) 1980s (d) 1990s
Answer. (a) A national level approach to build up a reproductively healthy society was taken up in our country in 1950s.
6. Emergency contraceptives are effective if used within
(a) 72 hrs of coitus (b) 72 hrs of ovulation
(c) 72 hrs of menstruation (d) 72 hrs of implantation
Answer. (a) Combination or IUDs within 72 hours of coitus have been found to be very effective as emergency contraceptives as they could be used to avoid possible pregnancy due to rape or casual unprotected intercourse.
7. Choose the right one among the statements given below:
(a) IUDs are generally inserted by the user herself
(b) IUDs increase phagocytosis reaction in the uterus
(c) IUDs suppress gametogenesis
(d) IUDs once inserted need not be replaced
- Hormone- releasing IUDs: Progestasert, LNG-20
- IUDs increases phagocytes of sperm within the uterus
8. Following statements are given regarding MTP. Choose the correct options given below:
i. MTPs are generally advised during first trimester.
ii. MTPs are used as a contraceptive method.
iii. MTPs are always surgical.
iv. MTPs require the assistance of qualified medical personnel.
(a) i and iii (b) ii and iii (c) i and iv (d) i and ii
- MTPs are considered relatively safe during the first trimester (up to 12 weeks of pregnancy).
- 2nd trimester abortions are much more risky.
- MTPs require the assistance of qualified medical personnel.
9. From the sexually transmitted diseases mentioned below, identify the one which does not specifically affect the sex organs.
(a) Syphilis (b) AIDS (c) Gonorrhea (d) Genital warts
Answer. (b) Diseases or infections whieh are transmitted through sexual intercourse called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or VD (Venereal diseases) or RTI (Reproductive tract infections).
Examples of STDs:
- HIV (AIDS)
- Genital herpes
- Chlamydiasis ,
- Genital warts
10. Condoms are one of the most popular contraceptives because of the following reasons:
(a) These are effective barriers for insemination
(b) They do not interfere with coital act
(c) These help in reducing the risk of STDs
(d) All of the above
Answer. (d) Condoms are barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath. Condoms are used to cover the penis in male or vagina and cervix in the female, just before coitus so that the ejaculated semen would not enter into the female reproductive tract. This can prevent conception. Use of condoms has increased in recent years due to its additional benefit of protecting the user from contracting STDs and AIDS. Both male and female condoms are disposable and gives privacy to the user. ‘Nirodh’ is a popular brand of condom for the male. Condom is the most widely used contraceptive by males in India as it is cheap and easily available. It is sirrtple and effective and has no side effects.
11. Choose the correct statement regarding the ZIFT procedure:
(a) Ova collected from a female donor are transferred to the fallopian tube to facilitate zygote formation.
(b) Zygote is collected from a female donor and transferred to the fallopian tube
(c) Zygote is collected from a female donor and transferred to the uterus
(d) Ova collected from a female donor and transferred to the uterus
- ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer): The zygote or early embryos (up to 8 blastomeres) could then be transferred into the fallopian tube.
- Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube (GIFT: Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) of another female who cannot produce one but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and further development.
12. The correct surgical procedure as a contraceptive method is
(a) Ovariectomy (b) Hysterectomy
(c) Vasectomy (d) Castration
Answer. (c) Vasectomy and tubectomy are surgical procedure as a contraceptive method.
13. Diaphragms are contraceptive devices used by the females. Choose the correct option from the statements given below:
i. They are introduced into the uterus
ii. They are placed to cover the cervical region
iii. They act as physical barriers for sperm entry
iv. They act as spermicidal agents
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii (c) ii and iii (d) iii and iv
Answer. (c) Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults: These are also barrier made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the cervix. They are reusable. Spermicidal creams, jellies and foams are usually used along with these barrier to increase their contraceptive efficiency.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. Reproductive health refers only to healthy reproductive functions. Comment.
Answer. Reproductive health refers to a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction,
i.e., physical, behavioural, psychological, social and physiological.
2. Comment on the Reproductive and Child Health Care programme of the government to improve the reproductive health of the people.
Answer. Creating public awareness regarding reproduction related aspects and providing facilities to build up a healthy society with added emphasis on the health of mother and child are the basic aims of the RCH programmes.
3. The present population growth rate “in India is alarming. Suggest ways to check it.
Answer. The most important step to overcome this problem is to motivate smaller families by using various contraceptive methods.
- Government of India advertises in the media as well as in posters, showing a happy couple with two children with a slogan “Hum Do Hamare Do” (We two, our two).
- Many couples, mostly the young, urban working ones have even adopted a one child norm.
- Statutory raising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of males to 21 years and incentives given to couples with small families are two of the other measure taken to tackle this problem.
4. STDs can be considered as self-invitedrdiseases. Comment.
Answer. STDs can be considered as self-invited diseases caused due to the conscious behaviour of person. STDs occur in those individuals that have unprotected sex with multiple or unknown partners.
5. Suggest the reproduction-related aspects in which counselling should be provided at the school level.
- Introduction of sex education in schools should also be encouraged to provide right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects.
- Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help people, especially those in the adolescent age group to lead a reproductively healthy life.
6. Mention the primary-aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” (ART) programme.
Answer. The primary aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” (ART) programme is the couples could be assisted to have children through certain special techniques.
7. What is the significance of progesterone-estrogen combination as a contraceptive measure?
Answer. Oral administration of small doses of progesterone-estrogen combination is a contraceptive measure which inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard the entry of sperms.
8. Strict conditions are to be followed in medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) procedures. Mention two reasons.
Answer. Government of India legalised MTP in 1971 with some strict conditions to avoid its misuse.
Such restrictions are all the more important to check indiscriminate and illegal female foeticides which reported to be high in India.
9. Males in whom testes fail to descend to the scrotum are generally infertile. Why?
Answer. If the testes fail to descend to the scrotum, gametogenesis could be inhibited, the process of spermatogenesis require a marginally lesser ambient temperature than that in the abdominal cavity.
10. Mention two advantages of lactational amenorrhea as a contraceptive method.
Answer. (i) There is no ovulation and therefore the menstrual cycle do not take place.
(ii) As no medicines or devices are used in these methods, side effects are almost nil. .
Short Answer Type Questions
1. Suggest some important steps that you would recommend to be taken to improve the reproductive health standards in India.
- Creating awareness among people about various reproduction related aspects and providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society are the major tasks under these programmes. With the help of audio-visual and the print-media, governmental and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the people about reproduction-related aspects.
- Parents, other close relatives, teachers and friends, also have a major role in the dissemination of the above information. Educating people, especially fertile couples and those in marriageable age group, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breast feeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of desired size.
2. The procedure of GIFT involves the transfer of female gamete to the fallopian tube. Can gametes be transferred to the uterus to achieve the same result? Explain.
Answer. The uterine environment is not congenial for the survival of the gamete. If, directly transferred to the uterus they will undergo degeneration or could be phagocytosed and hence viable zygote would not be formed.
3. Copper ions-releasing IUDs are more efficient than non-medicated methods. Why?
Answer. Unlike non-medicated IUEs, the copper releasing IUDs releases Cu ions that suppress sperm motility and fertilising capacity of sperms.
4. What are the probable factors that contributed to population explosion in India?
Answer. Probable reasons for population explosion are:
- A rapid decline in death rate.
- Decline in MMR (Maternal mortality rate).
- Decline in IMR (Infant mortality rate).
- An increase in number of people in reproducible age.
5. Briefly explain IVF and ET. What are the conditions in which these methods are advised?
Answer. IVF and ET refer to In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Transfer. Gametes from the male and female are collected hygienically and induced to fuse in the laboratory set up under simulated conditions. The zygote formed is collected and is introduced into the uterine region of a host dr surrogate mother at an appropriate time (secretory phase). Early embryos (up to 8 cell) are generally transferred to the fallopian tube whereas embryos with more than 8 cells are transferred to the uterus.
6. What are the advantages of natural methods of contraception over artificial methods?
Ans. Advantages of natural methods of contraception over artificial methods:
- As no medicines or devices are used in these methods, side effects are almost nil.
- There is no surgical intervention, so natural method is reversible in nature.
7. What are the conditions in which medical termination of pregnancy is advised?
- MTP is used to get rid of unwanted pregnancies either due to casual unprotected intercourse or failure of the contraceptive used during coitus or rapes.
- MTPs are also essential in certain cases where continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal either to the mother or to the foetus of both.
8. Comment on the essential features required for an ideal contraceptive.
Answer. An ideal contraceptive should be:
- Easily available
- No or least side-effects.
- Should not interfere with the sexual drive, desire or sexual act of the user
9. All reproductive tract infections RTJs are STDs, but all STDs are not RTIs. Justify with example.
Answer. The common STDs are gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, hepatitis-B, AIDs etc. Hepatitis-B, and AIDs are not infections of the reproductive organs though their mode of transmission could be through sexual contact also. All other diseases are transmitted through sexual contact and are also infections of the reproductive tract.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. What are the Assisted Reproductive Techniques practised to help infertile couples? Describe any three techniques.
Answer. Inability to conceive or produce children even after 2 years of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. In India, often the female is blamed ‘ for the couple being childless, but more often than not the problem lies in male partner.
Specialised health care units (infertility, clinics) could help in diagnosis and corrective treatment of some of these disorders and enable these couples to have children. However, where such corrections are not possible, the couples could be assisted to have children through certain special techniques commonly known as ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies).
1. Test Tube Baby Programme
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) followed by embryo transfer (ET) is a method to treat infertility and commonly known as the ‘Test tube baby’ programme. IVF-Fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body. In this method ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory.
- ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer): The zygote or early embryos (up to 8 blastomeres) could then be transferred into the fallopian tube.
- IUT (Intra Uterine Transfer): Embryos with more than 8 blastomeres could be transferred into the uterus, to complete its further development.
- Embryos formed by in vivo fertilization (fusion of gametes within the female) also could be used for such transfer to assist those females who cannot conceive.
Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube (GIFT; Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) of another female who cannot produce one but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and further development.
3. AI Technique
- Infertility cases either due to inability of the male partner to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculates, could be corrected by artificial insemination (AI) technique.
- In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced, either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI-Intra Uterine Insemination) of the female.
2. Discuss the mode of action and advantages/disadvantages of hormonal contraceptives.
- Oral administration of small doses of either progestagens or progestogen- estrogen combinations is another contraceptive method used by the females.
- Most important component of oral contraceptive is progesterone. They are used in the form of tablets and hence are popularly called the pills. Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting preferably within the first 5 days of menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days (during which menstruation occurs) it has to be repeated in the same pattern.
- Oral contraceptive pills inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter (change) the quality of cervical mucus to prevent or retard entry of
sperms. Progesterone present in OCP- is meant for checking ovulation. Pills are very effective with lesser side effects and are well accepted by the females. Combination or IUDs within 72 hours of coitus have been found to be very effective as emergency contraceptives as they could be used to avoid possible pregnancy due to rape or casual unprotected intercourse.
3. STDs are a threat to reproductive health. Describe any two such diseases and suggest preventive measures.
Answer. Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or VD (Venereal diseases) or RTI
(Reproductive tract infections).
Examples of STDs:
(i) HIV (AIDS)
(iii) Genital herpes
(vi) Genital warts
• AIDS is caused by HIV virus (Human Immuno deficiency virus or Human T-cell leukemia virus). There is always a time-lag between the infection and appearance of AIDS symptoms (incubation period). Incubation period may vary from a few month to many years (usually 5-10 years).
• ARC (AIDS Related Complex) is a mild or initial form of AIDS which develop after a few mon|h of infection. In AIDS patient, a reduction of 10% weight indicates ARC. After infection, HIV enters in macrophages where RNA of virus replicates to form viral DNA with the help of enzyme reverse transcriptase. Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA and directs the infected cell to produce new virus particles. The macrophages continue to produce virus therefore macrophages are called HIV Factory.
• Simultaneously HIV enters into helper T-lymphocytes (TH) or T4 replicates and produce progeny viruses. The progeny viruses released in the blood attack other helper T-lymphocytes. This is repeated leading to a progressive decrease in the number of helper T-lymphocytes in the body of infected person. During this period person suffers from: (i) Bouts of fever, (ii) Diarrhoea, (iii) Weight loss
• Due to the decrease in TH cells, person start suffering from infections that could have been otherwise overcome such as those due to bacteria especially Mycobacterium, virus, fungi and even parasites like Toxoplasma. The patient becomes so immuno-deficient that he/she is unable to protect himself/herself against these infections. Diagnostic test for AIDS is ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay).Werstem blot is used as confirmatory or supplemental test for AIDS. Routine test of AIDS is PCR.
Hepatitis-B viras is horizontally transmitted by blood transfusions, contaminated needles, body fluids like semen, saliva, sweat, tear and breast milk. Hepatitis-B is also transmitted vertically from infected mother to foetus through placenta. For prevention and control hepatitis-B vaccine is now available. Hepatitis-B vaccine was developed by Blumberg, for which he was awarded Nobel Prize in 1976.
4. Do you justify the statutory ban on amniocentesis in our country? Give reasons.
- Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term is called MTP or induced abortion. Nearly 45 to 50 millions MTPs are performed in a year all over the world which accounts to l/5th (20%) of the total number of conceived pregnancies in a year. MTP has a significant role in decreasing the population though it is not meant for this purpose.
- Government of India legalized MTP in 1971 with some strict conditions
to avoid its misuse. Such restrictions are more important to check indiscriminate and illegal female foeticides which reported to be high in India. ‘ .
- MTP is used to get rid of unwanted pregnancies either due to casual unprotected intercourse or failure of the contraceptive used during coitus or rapes. MTPs are also essential in certain cases where continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal either to the mother or to the foetus or both. MTPs are considered relatively safe during the first trimester (up to 12 weeks of pregnancy). 2nd trimester abortions are much more risky. Another dangerous trend is the misuse of amniocentesis to determine the sex of unborn child.
- Amniocentesis is a foetal sex determination test based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. Amniocentesis is employed for determining hereditary abnormality in embryo. Statutory ban on amniocentesis for sex-determination to legally Check: (i) Increasing female foeticides, (ii) Massive child immunisation.
5. Enumerate and describe any five reasons for introducing sex education to school-going children.
Answer. Proper information about reproductive organs-physiology and its functioning; discourage myths and misconceptions about sex-related aspects; knowledge about safe and hygienic sexual practices; adolescence and related changes, prevention of STDs, AlDs etc.
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