NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

Here we provide NCERT Solutions for Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian for English medium students, Which will very helpful for every student in their exams. Students can download the latest NCERT Solutions for Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian pdf, free NCERT solutions for Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian book pdf download. Now you will get step by step solution to each question.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Regional planning relates to:
(a) Development of various sectors of economy.
(b) Area specific approach of development.
(c) Area differences in transportation network.
(d) Development of rural areas.
Answer:
(b) Area specific approach of development.

Question 1.(ii)
ITDP refers to which one of the following?
(a) Integrated Tourism Development Programme
(b) Integrated Travel Development Programme
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme
Answer:
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
(a) Agricultural development
(b) Eco-development
(c) Transport development
(d) Colonisation of land
Answer:
(b) Eco-development

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?
Answer:
The process of development of tribal area of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis were included among ‘Scheduled Tribes’. The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 per cent in 2001. The difference between males and females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality, has also declined. The most significant contribution of tribal sub plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity. Practise of transhumance has decreased and now people migrate to Kangra as wage labourers thereby bringing in new life to their enclosed world.

Question 2.(ii)
Define the concept of sustainable development.
Answer:
(WCED) Brundtland Commission report (also known as Brundtland Report) ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987 defines sustainable development as a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It reflected the concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment.

Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources. It takes into account the development of whole human kind which have common future.

Question 2.(iii)
What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
Answer:
Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India. The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan. The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society. It has influenced the environmental conditions of the region both positively as well as negatively. The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land. This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems. It has led to tremendous increase in agricultural and livestock productivity. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping. The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?
Answer:
Drought prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.

Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone areas. The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level. The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought- prone area in India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.

Since the focus of the programme is sustainable development of the entire ecology and provide with the irrigational facilities to the regions, therefore the dryland agriculture gets a boost. The adoption of integrated watershed management and other programmes also contribute towards common property resource, collective farming etc. which increases the size of the cultivable plots, increasing the productivity. With introduction of drought prone area programmes, even the areas in the diyland region were able to avail proper agricultural technology and therefore dryland agriculture had prospects of increased productivity.

Question 3.(ii)
Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Answer:
The ecological sustainability of Indira Gandhi Canal Project has been questioned by various scholars. It is a hard fact that attaining sustainable development in the command area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability. Hence, five of the seven measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.

  • The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
  • In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
  • The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
  • The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
  • The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
  • The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
  • The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centers and market centers.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by planning?
Answer:
Planning means process of thinking, formulating schemes or programmes and implanting them by actions to achieve economic development in the country.

Question 2.
Who is responsible for planning in India?
Answer:
The Planning Commission, a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and members, is responsible for planning in India.

Question 3.
What are the two approaches to planning in India?
Answer:
The two approaches to planning in India are:

  1. Sectoral Planning
  2. Regional Planning

Question 4.
What do you mean by Rolling Plans?
Answer:
Two successive droughts during mid¬sixties (1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-67 and 1968-69. This period was covered by annual plans, which are also termed as Rolling Plans.

Question 5.
What do you mean by sectoral planning?
Answer:
Sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of schemes or programmes for the development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, power, manufacturing, construction, transport, communication, services and social infrastructure.

Question 6.
What do you mean by regional planning?
Answer:
Regional planning means formulation and implementation of schemes or programmes for the development of backward region to reduce regional imbalance in the development.

Question 7.
Give examples of programmes directed towards the development of target area in the country.
Answer:

  • Command Area Development Programme
  • Drought-prone Area Development Programme
  • Desert Development Programme
  • Hill Area Development Programme
  • The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal Farmers Develop¬ment Agency (MFDA). These are the few examples of target group programme.

Question 8.
Name the tribal community included in ‘Scheduled Tribes’ in 1970’s.
Answer:
Gaddis were included among ‘Scheduled Tribes’ in 1970’s.

Question 9.
When was the tribal subplan introduced?
Answer:
Tribal subplan was introduced in 1974, under Fifth Five Year Plan:

Question 10.
Name the four physiographic Bharmaur Region?
Answer:

  • Kugit Area
  • Tundah Area
  • Khani Area
  • Holi Area

Question 11.
What are the two phases incorporated •in the definition of development?
Answer:
The two phases are:

  • Redistribution with growth
  • Growth and equity

Question 12.
Mention the issues included in the concept of development.
Answer:
The issues included in the concept of development are as improving the well¬being and living standard of people, availing of health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.

Question 13.
Name the two publications associated with sustainable development.
Answer:

  • The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968.
  • The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows.

Question 14.
Why is WECD established? Who headed it?
Answer:
In view of the growing concern of the world community about the growing environmental problems, the United Nations established a World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD). It was headed by Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway.

Question 15.
What was the name of Brundtland Report?
Answer:
The name of the Brundtland Report was “Our Common Future”.

Question 16.
Explain the concept of sustainable development.
Answer:
It defines as a development that .meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their on needs. Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources.

Question 17.
What are the features of Indira Gandhi Canal Command area?
Answer:

  • Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India.
  • It originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert.
  • Its total length is 9,060 km.
  • It caters to the irrigation needs of a total culturable command area of 19.63 lakh hectares.

Question 18.
What is meant by target area?
Answer:
In order to arrest regional imbalance, schemes and programmes for the development of backward regions of India which needs special attention were introduced in the form of target area.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mention the important features of Hill Area Development Programmes.
Answer:

  • Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Year Plan.
  • It covered 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Assam, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.
  • The hill areas in the country having height above 600 metres and not covered under tribal subplan be treated as Backward Hill Areas.
  • These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.

Question 2.
Name those Five Year Plans of India which could not complete its duration.
Answer:
India has centralised planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission. It is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and members. The planning in the country is largely carried out through Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission.

Two successive droughts during mid¬sixties (1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-67 and 1968-69. This period was covered by annual plans. It was called rolling plans. The Fifth Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier, i.e. in 1977-78. Once again due to the political instability and initiation of liberalization policy, the Eighth Five Year Plan got delayed.

Question 3.
Explain the need and importance of Target Area Planning.
Answer:
Need of Target Area Planning:

  • The planning process has to take special care of those areas which have remained economically backward.
  • The economic development of a region depends upon its resource base. But resources are not equally distributed. Economic development also requires technological investments besides resource. Therefore, sometimes resource- rich regions also remain backward. It demands Target Area Planning for balanced regional development.

Importance of Target Area Planning:

  • With the planning experience of about one and half decades, it was realised that regional imbalances in economic development were getting accentuated. In order to arrest the accentuation of regional and social disparties, the Planning Commission introduced the ‘target area’ and ‘target group’ approaches to planning.
  • It will help in bringing balanced regional development which in turn has multiple benefits.

Question 4.
Mention the important features of Drought Prone Area Programmes.
Answer:

  • This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan.
  • Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas.
  • The objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets.
  • This programmes laid emphasis on the construction of labour intensive civil works. Irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
  • Other strategies include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at micro level.
  • The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants and human population.

Question 5.
What are the positive and negative influences of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Development Programme on the environment of the region?
Answer:
The positive and negative, influences of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Development Programme are as follows:
Positive:

  • The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in transformation in agricultural economy.
  • Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
  • It has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems.
  • Traditional crops such as gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice.
  • Intensive irrigation led to an increase in agricultural and livestock productivity.

Negative:

  • The intensive irrigation and excessive use of water has led to the emergence of twin environmental problems of waterlogging and soil salinity.
  • Soils are getting infertile and thus in the long run agriculture would be affected.
  • It has degraded the environment of the region hampering sustainability of agriculture.

Question 6.
Indian lifestyle was quite environment friendly but globalization has brought a change in lifestyle which is not environment friendly. Do you agree? Justify your answer.
Answer:
It is quite right that Indian lifestyle is environment friendly. People use local materials to build houses, natural cycle is followed in agriculture so that soil is replenished. They are habitual of working during day hours and hence electricity consumption is less. But due to globalization, we have come in contact with western nations. It has affected our old ways and our lifestyles are no more environment friendly with increase use of resources.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did the concept of sustainable development originate?
Answer:
Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment. The concept of development is dynamic and has evolved during the second half of twentieth century.

Phase I: Development and Economic Growth are synonyms: In the post World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous to economic growth. Economic growth is measured in terms of temporal increase in gross national product (GNP) and per capita income or per capita consumption.

Phase II: Development is growth with equity: But, even the countries having high economic growth, experienced speedy rise in poverty because of unequal distribution of income and wealth. So, in 1970s, the phrases such as redistribution with growth and growth and equity were incorporated in the definition of development.

Phase III: Development is economic as well as social: When discussions continued regarding redistribution and equity, it was realized that the concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere alone. It also includes the issues such as improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights. By 1980’s, development emerged as a concept encapsulating widespread improvement in social as well as material well-being of all in a society. The notion of sustainable development merged with the awareness of environmental issue in 1960’s with the undesirable effects of industries on environment.

Concerned with the growing opinion of world community on the environmental issues, the United Nations established a World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). It was headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Commission gave its report in 1987. It is called Brundtland Report and was entitled ‘Our Common Future’. According to this report, sustainable development is a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

Question 2.
Which socio-economic benefits are being experienced by implementation of Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur?
Answer:
Two tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, namely Bharmaur and Holi were notified as a tribal area since 21 November, 1975. Bharmaur is inhabited by ‘Gaddi’, a tribal community who have maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan region as they practise transhumance and conversed through Gaddiali dialect. It is one of the economically and socially backward areas of Himachal Pradesh. Due to implementation of Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), there have been tremendous socio-economic benefits,
Social Benefits:

  • The most significant contribution of tribal subplan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity.
  • Tremendous increase in literacy rate (female literacy increase from 1.9% to 65%)
  • Improvement in sex ratio.
  • Decline in child marriage.
  • Difference between males and females in literacy rate, i.e. gender inequality, has also declined.

Economic Benefits:

  • The cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased in Bharmaur region.
  • Now a few people practise transhumance because the importance of pastoralism is gradually declining. (About 1/10 household practises pastoralism).

Question 3.
What measures for promotion of sustainable development have been taken under Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
Answer:
The following measures for promotion of sustainable development have been taken under Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area:

  • The first requirement is strict implemen¬tation of water management policy. It envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
  • The cropping pattern shall not include water-intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
  • The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
  • The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
  • The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage II.
  • The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
  • The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. It leads to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-services centres and market centres.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1.
How did the notion of sustainable development emerge? Also, state some of its salient features.
Answer:
Notion of sustainable development has emerged in phases:

  • Rise in the awareness of environmental issues in western world.
  • Concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment.
  • The publications like — “The Population Bomb” and “The Limits to Growth” further raised the issue. Salient Features:
  • It takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development.
  • It meets the needs of the present without compromising to the needs and aspirations of the future generations.
  • It takes into account the development of whole human being.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
In which Five Year Plan of India were Hill Area Development Programmes initiated? (A.I. 2009)
Answer:
Fifth Five Year Plan.

Question 2.
What was the main objective to implement the Fourth Five Year Plan for the people in drought prone areas? (Delhi 2009)
Answer:
The main objective of Fourth Five Year Plan for the people of drought prone area was to provide employment and create productive assets.

Question 3.
How has the Gaddi Tribal community of Bharmaur region maintained a distinct identity? (A.I. 2013)
Answer:

  • They practiced transhumance in the Himalayan region.
  • They conversed through Gaddiali dialect.

Question 4.
Examine the twin environmental problems that have emerged in the “Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’. (A.I. 2017)
Answer:
Environmental problems:

  • Water logging
  • Soil salinity The intensive irrigation and excessive use of water has led to the emergence of twin environmental problems of Water logging and Soil salinity in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.

Question 5.
Examine the concept of ‘regional planning’. (Delhi 2018)
Answer:
The concept of regional planning: To develop a particular region/ to reduce the regional imbalance in the development.

All Chapter NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography

—————————————————————————–

All Subject NCERT Solutions For Class 11

*************************************************

I think you got complete solutions for this chapter. If You have any queries regarding this chapter, please comment on the below section our subject teacher will answer you. We tried our best to give complete solutions so you got good marks in your exam.

If these solutions have helped you, you can also share ncertsolutionsfor.com to your friends.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *