# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

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## Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
India’s population as per 2001 census is:
(a) 1028 million
(b) 3182 million
(c) 3287 million
(d) 20 million
(a) 1028 million

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India?
(a) Bihar
(b) Kerala
(d) Punjab
(a) Bihar

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following states has the highest proportion of urban population in India according to 2001 Census?
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Kerala
(d) Gujarat
(b) Maharashtra

Question 1.(iv)
Which one of the following is the largest linguistic group of India?
(a) Sino – Tibetan
(b) Indo – Aryan
(c) Austric
(d) Dravidian
(b) Indo – Aryan

Question 2.(i)
Very hot and dry and very cold and wet regions of India have low density of population. In this light, explain the role of climate on the distribution of population.
People tend to concentrate in areas with moderate climatic conditions, that is areas that are neither too hot nor too dry and also with adequate precipitation to support life activities. The extremities of climate tend to push people away from the region and make the region less attractive for human inhabitation. In India western Rajasthan, which is characterized by high temperatures and dry conditions, is one of the least inhabited regions. The population density tends to be high in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar etc. because these regions have moderate temperature conditions with adequate precipitation therefore making the region conducive for population concentration.

Question 2.(ii)
Which states have large rural population in India? Give one reason for such large rural population.
States of Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, U.P., Bihar and Sikkim have very high percentage of rural population. The reason for high rural population is that these areas are the ones with low level of economic, social development and hence low level of infrastructural development, which tend to inhibit the process of urbanization. Also with sluggish growth people tend to be concentrated in the field of primary activities therefore.

Question 2.(iii)
Why do some states of India have higher rates of work participation than others?
Work participation rate is the number of people engaged in economic activities. Some states of India like Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh etc. tend to have higher work participation rate. The work participation rate tends to be higher in the areas of lower levels of economic development since number of manual workers are needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities in the absence of other opportunities.

Question 2.(iv)
The agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers.’ – Explain.
The occupational composition of India’s population shows a large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors. In India about 58.2 per cent of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas only 4.2% of workers are engaged in household industries and 37.6 % are other workers including non-household industries, trade, commerce, construction and repair and other services. India is an agricultural country with maximum population engaged in it as job opportunities in the other sectors are limited due to low rate of infrastructural development. Workers are declining over the last few decades from 66.85% in 1991 to 58% in 2001 leading to rise in share of tertiary sector.

Question 3.(i)
Discuss the spatial pattern of density of population in India.
India has a highly uneven pattern of population distribution. U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh along with Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat, together account for about 76 per cent of the total population of the country. On the other hand, share of population is very small in the states like Jammu & Kashmir (0.98%), Arunachai Pradesh (0.11%) and Uttaranchal (0.83%) inspite of these states having fairly large geographical area. The density of population in India (2011) is 382 persons per sq km and ranks third among the most densely populated countries of Asia.

Such an uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests a close relationship between population and physical, socio-economic and historical factors. As far as the physical factors are concerned, it is clear that climate along with terrain and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution. Consequently, we observe that the North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian States, Himalayas, some of the north eastern and the western states. However, development of irrigation (Rajasthan), availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand) and development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in moderate to high concentration of population in are.as which were previously very thinly populated.

Among the socio-economic and historical factors of distribution of population, important ones are evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development; pattern of human settlement; development of transport network, industrialisation and urbanisation. It is observed that the regions falling in the river plains and coastal areas of India have remained the regions of larger population concentration. Even though the uses of natural resources like land and water in these regions have shown the sign of degradation, the concentration of population remains high because of an early history of human settlement and development of transport network. On the other hand, the urban regions of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have high concentration of population due to industrial development and urbanisation drawing a large numbers of rural-urban migrants.

Question 3.(ii)
Give an account of the occupational structure of India’s population.
The population of India according to their economic status is divided into three groups, namely; main workers, marginal workers and non-workers. It is observed that in India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only 39 per cent (2001) leaving a vast majority of 61 per cent as non-workers. This indicates an economic status in which there is a larger proportion of dependent population, further indicating possible existence of large number of unemployed or under employed people.

The occupational composition of India’s population (which actually means engagement of an individual in farming, manufacturing trade, services or any kind of professional activities) shows a large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors. About 58.2 per cent of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas only 4.2% of workers are engaged in household industries and 37.6% are other workers including non household industries, trade, commerce, construction and repair and other . services. As far as the occupation of country’s male and female population is concerned, male workers out-number female workers in all the three sectors. The number of female workers is relatively high in primary sector, though in recent years there has been some improvement in work participation of women in secondary and tertiary sectors.

The participation rate in secondary and tertiary sectors has registered an increase. This indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm-based occupations to non-farm based ones, indicating a sectoral shift in the economy of the country. The spatial variation of work participation rate in different sectors in the country is very wide. For instance, the states like Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have very large shares of cultivators. On the other hand states like Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh have higher proportion of agricultural labourers. The highly urbanised areas like Delhi, Chandigarh and Puducherry have a very large proportion of workers being engaged in other services.

### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 NCERT Extra Questions

#### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the sources of population data in India? When was the first complete data collection completed/conducted?
The main source of data collection in India is Census data collected every 10 years. First complete data collection was conducted by census in 1881.

Question 2.
What is India’s population density?
As per 2011 census the density of population is 382 people/sq. km.

Question 3.
Which is the most densely populated country of Asia?
Singapore is the most densely populated country of Asia.

Question 4.
Define: Physiological density, Agricultural density, Agricultural population
Physiological density is the number of people per unit of arable land. Agricultural density is the number of farmers per unit of arable land. Agricultural population includes cultivators and agricultural labourers and their family members.

Question 5.
What is meant by population doubling time?
The time taken by any population to double itself at its current annual growth rate is called population doubling time.

Question 6.
Which decade experienced negative growth in India?
The decade of 1911-1921 experienced negative population growth rate in India.

Question 7.
Categorize population based on their place of residence.
Based on the place of residence population can be categorized into rural and urban.

Question 8.
What are the two components of population growth?
Natural and induced are the two components of population growth.

Question 9.
Define population composition.
It is a distinct field of study within population geography with a vast coverage of the analysis of age and sex, place of residence, ethnic characteristics, religion, language, literacy, marital status, occupational characteristics, etc.

Question 10.
What are the major occupation categories as per the census of India, 2011?
Four major categories are Cultivators, Agricultural labourers, Household industrial workers and Other workers.

Question 11.
When was the latest census survey conducted? When was the last day and time of census survey?
In India, the latest census survey was conducted in 2011. It was based on the data till 28 February, 2011 at 12 mid night.

Question 12.
What -is the total population of India as per the latest survey? Also tell rural and urban population of India as per this survey.
As per the 2011 census the total population of India is 1210193422 persons. Rural population – 833087662 Urban population – 377105760

Question 13.
India has 7th position in the world in terms of land area and 2nd position in terms of population. Substantiate.
2.4% of total land of the world is under India There are six more nations whose land area is more than India. Therefore from population perspective India is at 2nd position after China with its total population of 1210193422 persons (2011). While in terms of land area, it is at 7th position in the world.

Question 14.
Why is the average annual growth rate of population less in 1951 as compared to 1941?

• High participation in the World Wars and many lives were lost in these wars.

Question 15.
Describe the regional variations in population growth of India.

• The southern states like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Puducherry 8s Goa have a low rate of growth not exceeding the lowest growth rate of 9.4%.
• Growth rate in states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, UP, Haryana, Uttaranchal, MP, Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand, the growth rate on the average remained 20-25 %.

Question 16.
How much percentage of population lives in rural and urban areas?
According to 2011 census survey, it is as follows:

• Rural – 68.84%
• Urban – 31.16%

Question 17.
What does the increase in the participation rate of secondary and tertiary sectors signify?
The participation rate in secondary and tertiary sectors has registered an increase. This indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm-based occupations to non-farm based ones, indicating a sector shift in the economy of the country.

Question 18.
Which religious community holds the most dominant position in India?
The Hindus hold the most dominant position in India.

Question 19.
Name the largest spoken language of India. Name any four states where they are spoken.
The largest spoken language in India is Hindi. It is spoken in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

Question 20.
Which are the smallest spoken languages?
Kashmiri and Sanskrit languages.

Question 21.
Name the states which have less population in comparison to their land area.
States with lowest density of population are Arunachal Pradesh (7 persons per sq km), Mizoram, (52 persons per sq km and Sikkim (86 persons per sq km).

Question 22.
Which of the Union Territories has highest and lowest population density?
The National Capital Territory of Delhi has the highest population density of 11,297 persons whereas Andaman and Nicob&i Island with 46 persons per sq km, has the lowest population density.

Question 23.
Which states and the UT’s of India exhibit less than 10% population growth rate and which of them have negative growth rate?
In India two states i.e. Goa and Kerala have less than 10% population growth rate. In Goa, it is 8.17% and in Kerala it is 4.68%. Amongst Union Territories, in Andaman and Nicobar Island it is 6.68% and in Lakshadweep it is 6.23%. Nagaland is the only state where negative growth rate has been observed and it is -0.47%.

Question 24.
Which states of India have highest population under rural area?
In India approximately 68.84% of population is living in rural areas. 89.96% population of Himachal Pradesh, 88.70% population of Bihar, 85.92% population of Assam and 83.32% population of Odisha is living in rural areas.

Question 25.
Which state of India is the most urbanized? Name some other states in terms of highest level of urbanization.
Goa is the most urbanized state of India. 62.71% population of Goa lives in urban areas. After this, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat,
Karnataka and Punjab have more than 50% population living in urban areas.

Question 26.
How many scheduled languages does Indian constitution have?
Indian constitution has 22 Scheduled languages.

Question 27.
Who is a main worker?
A worker who works for more than or equal to 183 days in a year is called main worker.

Question 28.
In how many groups is Indian population divided from economic perspective?
They are divided into three groups:

1. Main worker
2. Marginal worker
3. Non worker

Question 29.
In how many categories is working population of India divided?
The 2001 Census has divided the working population of India into four major categories:

• Cultivators
• Agricultural labourers
• Household industrial workers
• Other workers.

Question 30.
What does World Development Report say about present rate of growth of India’s population?
World Development Report has projected that population of India will touch 1,350 million by 2025.

#### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give in brief the factors that affect population distribution in India.
Physical, socio-economic and historical factors influence population distribution in India. Climate along with terrain and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution. North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian States, Himalayas, some of the north eastern and the western states. Evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development, pattern of human settlement, development of transport network, industrialization and urbanization also affect population distribution.

Question 2.
Why does rural/urban distribution of population vary in India?
Pattern of distribution of rural population of India reveals that both at intra-State and inter-State levels, the relative degree of urbanization and extent of rural-urban migration regulate the concentration of rural population.

The growth rate of urban population has accelerated due to enhanced economic development and improvement in health and hygienic conditions. In almost all the states and Union Territories, there has been a considerable increase of urban population. Urbanization is low in remote, hilly, tribal and flood prone areas.

Question 3.
What does the ‘sectoral workforce’ of population in India signify?
In India, there is large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors. But it is important to note that the proportion of workers in agricultural sector in India has shown a decline over the last few decades (58.2% in 2001 to 54.6% in 2011). Consequently, the participation rate in secondary and tertiary sectors has registered an increase. This indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm based occupations to non-farm based ones, indicating a sectoral shift in the economy of the country. Male workers overshadow the female workers in all sectors.

Question 4.
Some places in India are densely populated while others are sparsely populated. Substantiate.
Some places in India are densely populated while others are sparsely populated. It is clear from the following statistics:

• Spatial variations of population densities in the country which ranges from low as 13 persons per sq. km in Arunachal Pradesh to 9,340 persons in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
• Among the northern Indian states, West Bengal, Bihar & U.P. have high population densities, while Kerala and Tamil Nadu have higher population densities among the peninsular Indian states.
• States like Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand and Odisha have moderate densities.
• The hill states of the Himalayan region and North-eastern states of India have relatively low densities (except Assam).
• The Union Territories (excluded Andaman 8s Nicobar) have very high densities of population.

Question 5.
What do you mean by population growth? Explain how is it estimated?
Population growth refers to the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. It is calculated as follows:
(text { Population growth rate }=frac{text { Population in period two – population in period one }}{text { Population in period one }} times 100)

Question 6.
India is a secular country. Substantiate the statement with statistical facts.
It is absolutely right that India is a secular country where people following different religions live together with unity.

• Hindus: Range from 70-80 per cent except in the districts of states along Indo- Bangladesh border, Indo-Pak border, Jammu 8s Kashmir, hill states of North¬east 8s in scattered areas of Deccan Plateau 8s Ganga Plain.
• Muslims: They are the largest religious minority that are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, UP, Delhi & Lakshadweep. They form majority in Kashmir valley & Lakshadweep.
• Christians: They are concentrated along the Western coast of Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Chotanagpur & Hills of Manipur.
• Sikhs: They are concentrated in small areas of the country particularly in states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.
• Jains and Buddhists: They are the smallest religious groups.
• Other religions include Zoroastrians tribal and other indigenous faiths and beliefs.

Question 7.
Analyse the linguistic composition of India.
India is a land of linguistic diversity. According to Grierson (Linguistic Survey of India, 1903-1928) there were 179 languages and as many as 544 dialects in the country.

• In the context of modern India, there are about 22 scheduled languages and number of non-scheduled languages.
• Among the scheduled languages, the speakers of Hindi have the highest percentage (40.42).
• The smallest language groups are Kashmiri and Sanskrit speakers (0.01 per cent each).

Question 8.
What are the salient features of population of India?
Some of the salient features of population of India are given below:

• India is the second most populous country after China with population of more than 1 billion in 2001 A.D.
• The average growth rate of the population from 1991-2001 has been 19.3%. Cities & towns have registered higher growth of population due to migration from rural areas.
• Population is male dominated and sex ratio is continuously declining.
• At present growth rate, India’s population will be doubled after 36 years.
• About 50% of the population is less than 20 years of age. Such a youth population has its own socio-economic and political problems.
• Majority of population consists of non-workers.

Question 9.
Name four Indian Linguistic families and give four examples of each family. Ans. Indian languages have been grouped in four families as follows:

• Dravidian (Dravida): M.P., Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar
• Sino-Tibetian (Kirata): Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya.
• Indo-European (Aryan): Jammu & Kashmir, U.P., M.P., Goa.

Question 10.
“Socio-economic factors influence high density of population”. Give reasons with examples.
It is absolutely right to say that social-economic factors influence high density of population:

• Evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development.
• Pattern of human settlement.
• Development of transport network.
• Urbanisation and industrialisation before.
• River plains and coastal areas; urban centres/industrial areas.

Question 11.
Why is there a decline in the number of workers in agricultural sector?
There is a decline in the number of workers in agricultural sector due to following reasons:

• Availability of limited farming.
• Lack of employment in rural areas due to mechanization of agriculture.
• Seasonal nature of employment.
• Large scale urbanization and industrialization.

Question 12.
“Female participation rate is low in India” Why?
Female participation rate is low in India due to following factors:

• Joint family system.
• Low rate of literacy among females.
• Frequent child birth.
• Greater family responsibility.
• Male dominated society.

#### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe India’s population growth over the years.
The growth rate of population in India over the last one century has been caused by annual birth rate and death rate and rate of migration and thereby shows different trends. There are four distinct phases of growth identified within this period:

Phase-I: The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population, since in this period growth rate was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921. Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.

Phase II: The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth. An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate. At the same time better transport and communication system improved distribution system. The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate than the previous phase.

Phase III: The decades 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India, which was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country. The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 percent. Increased international migration bringing in Tibetans, Bangladeshis, Nepalies and even people from Pakistan contributed to the high growth rate.

Phase IV: In the post 1981 till present, the growth rate of country’s population though remained high, has started slowing down gradually.. A downward trend of crude birth rate is held responsible for such a population growth. This was, in turn, affected by an increase in the mean age at marriage, improved quality of life particularly education of females in the country.
Though the growth rate of population is still high in India, there is wide regional variation from one region to the other.

Question 2.
Write a note on the adolescent population in India.
An important aspect of population growth in India is the growth of its adolescents. At present the share of adolescents i.e., up to the age group of 10-19 years is about 20.9 per cent (2011), among which male adolescents constitute 52.7 per cent and female adolescents constitute 47.3 per cent. The adolescent population, though, regarded as the youthful population having high potentials, but at the same time they are quite vulnerable if not guided and channelized properly.

There are many challenges for the society as far as these adolescents are concerned, some of which are lower age at marriage, illiteracy – particularly female illiteracy, school dropouts, low intake of nutrients, high rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers, high rates of HIV/ AIDS infections, physical and mental disability or retardedness, drug abuse and alcoholism, juvenile delinquency and commitence of crimes, etc.

In view of these, the Government of India has undertaken certain policies to impart proper education to the adolescent groups so that their talents are better channelized and properly utilized. The National Youth Policy of Government of India, launched in 2003, stresses on an all round improvement of the youth and adolescents enabling them to shoulder responsibility towards constructive development of the country. It also aims at reinforcing the qualities of patriotism and responsible citizenship.

The thrust of this policy is youth empowerment in terms of their effective participation in decision making and carrying the responsibility of an able leader. Special emphasis was given in empowering women and girl child to bring parity in the male-female status. Moreover, deliberate efforts were made to look into youth health, sports and recreation creativity and awareness about new innovation in the spheres of science and technology.

Question 3.
To which families do the major Indian languages belong? Give details of their sub-family and areas.
The major Indian languages belong to four main language families – Austric, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European.

Question 4.
What is the occupational composition of Indian’s population? Give a detailed report.
The occupational composition of India’s population (which actually means engagement of an individual in farming, manufacturing trade, services or any kind of professional activities) shows a large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors. About 54.6 % of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas only 3.8% of workers are engaged in household industries and 41.6 % are other workers including non-household industries, trade, commerce, construction and repair and other services. As far as the occupation of country’s male and female population is concerned, male workers out-number female workers in all the three sectors.
The number of female workers is relatively high in primary sector, though in recent years there has been some improvement in work participation of women in secondary and tertiary sectors.

It is important to note that the proportion of workers in agricultural sector, in India has shown a decline over the last few decades (58.2% in 2001 to 54.6% in 2011). Consequently, the participation rate in secondary and tertiary sectors has registered an increase. This indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm ‘ based occupations to non-farm based ones, indicating a sectoral shift in the economy of the country.

The spatial variation of work participation rate in different sectors in the country is very wide. For instance, the states like Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have very large shares of cultivators. On the other hand states like Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh have higher proportion of agricultural labourers. The highly urbanized areas like Delhi, Chandigarh and Puducherry have a very large proportion of workers being engaged in other services. This indicates not only availability of limited farming land, but also large scale urbanisation and industrialization requiring more workers in non-farm sectors.

Question 5.
What are the challenges before adolescents? What steps have been taken by government to overcome these challenges?
as follows:

• Female illiteracy
• School dropouts
• Low intake of nutrients.
• High rates of HIV/AIDS infections.
• Drug abuse and alcoholism
• Physical and mental disabilities.
• Lack of job opportunities.
• Peer pressure
• High rate of maternal mortality of adosescents mothers
• Lower age at marriage
• Domestic violence.
• Juvenile delinquency and commitance of crimes, etc.

In order to solve all these problems government has launched a National Youth Policy.
Features of National Youth Policy:

• It was launched in 2003. It stresses on all round development of youth and adolescents.
• It enables them to shoulder responsibility for constructive development.
• It also aims at reinforcing the qualities of patriotism and responsible citizenship.
• Special emphasis is given on empowering women and girl child to bring equality and status.
• It also lays stress on involvement of youth in decision making process.
• Under this policy, deliberate efforts were taken to improve health, sports, recreation, creativity, technology and create innovations in all spheres of life.

Question 6.
Explain the variations in the proportion of working population in India.
The variations in the proportion of working population in India are:

• Moderate variation from about 25 per cent in Goa to about 53 per cent in Mizoram.
• Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya have larger percentages of workers. Among the Union Territories Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu have higher participation rate because these states have variations in the levels of economic development.
• About 58.2 per cent of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers.
• Only 4.2% of workers are engaged in household industries.
• 37.6 % are other workers including non-household industries, trade, commerce construction and repair and other services as proportion of people in agricultural sector has shown a decline over last few decades i.e., 68.5% to 58.2% consequently participation in tertiary and secondary sectors have increased.

Question 7.
Differentiate between marginal worker and main worker.

#### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Map Based Questions

Question 1.
Locate and label the following on the given political map of India with appropriate symbols.
(i) Highest density state
(ii) Lowest density state

Question 2.
Locate and label the following on the given political map of India with appropriate symbols.
(i) State with low percentage of urban population.
(ii) State with high percentage of urban population.
(in) State with highest urban population.
(iv) State with highest rural population.
(v) State having lowest rural and urban population
(ii) Goa
(iii) Maharashtra
(v) Sikkim

#### Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Questions

Question 1.
Name the state of India having the highest density of population and also mention its density.
Bihar, 1102 persons per sq. km.

Question 2.
Define the term Positive Growth of Population. (CBSE 2011)
When the birth rate is more than death rate between two points of time or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region, it is gives rise to positive growth of population.

Question 3.
Mention any two causes of the negative growth rate of population in India during 1901-1921. (CBSE 2013)

• During 1901-1921 both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
• Poor health and medical facilities.
• Lack of basic necessities.
• Spread of epidemic and endemics.
• Inefficient public distribution system.

Question 4.
Define the term “population distribution. ’(CBSE 2015)
The term ‘population distribution’ refers to the way people are spaced over the earth’s surface.

Question 5.
How is density of population of a region calculated? (A.I. 2015)
Density of population is ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land. It is usually measured in persons per sq. km.

Question 6.
What is the main thrust of the National Youth Policy of Government of India, 2003? . (A.I. 2015)
The thrust of the National Youth Policy 2003 is youth empowerment in terms of their effective participation in decision¬making and carrying the responsibility of an able leader.

Question 7.
Name the state of India with largest area. (CBSE 2016)
Rajasthan is the largest state of India in area.

Question 8.
Name the union territory of India having lowest density of population as per 2011 census. (CBSE 2016)
Andaman and Nicobar Union Territory has the lowest density of population as per 2011 census.

Question 9.
Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011. (Delhi 2017, 2018)
State having least share of population: Sikkim

Question 1.
Why is the growth rate of population in phase IV, slowing down in India? Give three reasons. (Foreign 2010)
The growth rate of population in Phase IV is slowing down in India because

• Downward trend of crude birth rate.
• Increase mean age of marriage.
• Improved quality of life particularly female education.

Question 2.
“The distribution of rural population is I not uniform throughout India.” Support this statement with three suitable examples. (Foreign 2010)
The distribution of rural population is not uniform throughout India as

• Both development of urban areas in terms of social-economic conditions and an increase rate of rural-urban migration.
• The rural-urban migration is conspicuous in the case of urban areas along the main road links and railroads in the North Indian plains and some industrial areas.
• Agriculturally stagnant parts of the middle and lower Gangaplains, Telangana, remote hilly, etc., the degree of urbanization has remained low.

Question 3.
The decades 1951-1981 are referred as the period of population explosion in India.” Explain the statement by giving any three reasons. (CBSE 2014)

• This period is called population
• explosion because
• Rapid fall in the mortality rate due to centralized planning process.
• Fertility rate remained high with the result of average growth.
• High natural increase and higher growth rate

Question 1.
Explain with examples the occupational structure of India’s population. (CBSE 2011)

• Most of the India’s population is engaged in primary sector rather than secondary and tertiaiy sectors.
• About 58.2 per cent of total working population are cultivator and agricultural labourers; where as only 4.2% of workers are engaged in household industries and 37.6 per cent are other workers engaged in non-household industries, trade, commerce construction and repair and other services.
• As the occupation of country’s male and female population concerned, male workers out number female workers in all the three sectors.
• The proportion of working population of states show a moderate variation from 25 to 53 per cent.
• The number of female workers is relatively high in primary sector.
• The proportion of workers in agricultural sector has shown a decline over the last few decades.

Question 2.
Explain with examples any five factors that affect the population distribution in India
Five factors that affect population distribution in India are:

• Climate along with terrain and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution. Example; The North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian States, Himalayas, some of the north eastern and the western states.
• Development of irrigation (Rajasthan). Availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand).
• Development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in moderate to high concentration of population in areas which were previously very thinly populated.
• Evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development: pattern of human settlement; development of transport network, industrialization and urbanization.
• The urban regions of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have high concen¬tration of population due to industrial development and urbanization drawing a large numbers of rural-urban migrants.

Question 3.
How are physical and economic factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India? (Al 2011)
Physical factors that determine the pattern of the population distribution:

• Climate along with terrain and availability of water.
• Development of transport network.
• Availability of mineral and energy resources.

Economic factors that determine the pattern of the population distribution:

• Development of irrigation and evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development.
• Industrialization and urbanization.
• Pattern of human settlement.

Question 4.
“The decaded 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady growth of population whereas the decaded 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India.” Explain giving reasons. (CBSE 2014)

• It brought down the mortality rate.
• There was a lot of invention in life-saving drugs. Hence, improvement in health and sanitation took place in the country.
• Crude birth rate (CBR) remained high.

• There was high fertility rate of population in the country.
• There was much improvement in the living conditions of the people.
• There was rapid fall in mortality rate.
• There was huge increase in population

Question 5.
Define the term Growth of population. Describe the third phase of growth of population in India. (CBSE 2015)
Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. Its rate is expressed in percentage. It has two components-natural and induced.
Third Phase of growth of population in India:

• The decades of 1951-1981 are the phase of population explosion.
• Caused by a rapid fall in mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country.
• The average annual Growth rate was as high as 2.2 per cent.
• Developmental activities were introduced through a centralized planning process.
• Increased international migration contributed to the high growth rate.

Question 6.
What is population doubling time? Explain the characteristics of the growth of population in India in Phase I and II. (CBSE 2015)
Population Doubling time is the time taken by any population to double itself at its current annual growth rate.
Characteristics of the population growth in Phase I:

• This phase (1901 -21) is known as a period of stagnant or stationary phase.
• Growth rate was very slow, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921.
• Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.

Characteristics of the population growth in Phase II:

• This phase (1921-1951) is known as steady population growth.
• Improvement in health and sanitation brought down the mortality rate.
• Crude birth rate remained high leading to higher growth rate.

Question 7.
Locate and label the following on the given political map of India with appropriate symbols.
(i) The State having largest area.
(ii) State having highest density of population.
(iii) State having lowest density of population
(i)Rajasthan
(ii) Bihar

Question 8.
What is density of population? Describe the spatial variation of population density in India. (CBSE 2015)
Density of population is expressed as number of persons per unit area. Spatial Variation of population densities in the country ranges 17 persons per sq. km. in Arunachal Pradesh to 11297 persons in the National Capital Territory of Delhi according to Census-2011. Bihar 1102, West Bengal 1029 and Uttar Pradesh 828 have higher densities, while Kerala 1013 and Tamil Nadu 859 have higher densities among the peninsular Indian states. Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand and Odisha have moderate densities. The hill states of the Himalayan region and north-eastern states have relatively low densities.

Question 9 .
What is the source of population data in India? Explain the distribution of population in India. (CBSE 2015)
Population data are collected through census operation held every 10 years in our country. India has a highly uneven pattern of population distribution. Uttar Pradesh has the highest population followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. On the other hand, share of population is very small in the state like Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Such an uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests a close relationship between population and physical, social, economic and historical factors. As far as the physical factors are concerned it is clear that terrain, climate and water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution. North India plains, deltas and coastal plains have higher population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian states. Among the socio-economic and historical factors of distribution of population important once are evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development, pattern of human settlement, development of transport network, industrialization and urbanization.

Question 10.
“An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.” Support the statement with suitable examples. (Delhi 2017)
Population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors- Dense population in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, favourable climate water availability and socio-economic factors.

Sparse population of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-East States is due to hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh climate. Rajasthan has water shortage and its hot 8s dry climate accounts for low population density.

Moderate density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu etc. due to possibilities of agriculture, industrial development and favorable climate to some extent. Favorable factors for Transport network, industrialization, urbanization in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR etc. account for high population density. (Examples from the world should be considered as well)

Question 11.
‘The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing over time.” Substantiate the statement. (CBSE 2018)
The decadal and annual growth rate of population in India:
The decades between 1921 to 1951 recorded steady growth of population. Overall improvement in health and sanitation minimized the mortality rate but the birth rate remained high.

In the next three decades 1951-81 are known as the period of population explosion. It was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but birth rate remained high. Average annual growth rate was very high as the living conditions of people improved due to developmental activities resulting in high natural increase in birth rate and thus, growth rate remained high. International migration also contributed to the high growth rate of population. Since 1981 till date, population growth rate has been high although a downward trend of crude birth rate has started.

All Chapter NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography

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All Subject NCERT Solutions For Class 11

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