NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 – Physical Features of India

Here we provide NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 – Physical Features of India for English medium students, Which will very helpful for every student in their exams. Students can download the latest NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 pdf. Now you will get step by step solution to each question. (i)

Converging Tectonic PlatesDiverging Tectonic Plates
When tectonic plates move towards each other, they are called converging plates.When tectonic plates move away from each other, they are called diverging plates.
They collide or crumble or one of them slides under the other while moving towards each other.They do not collide or crumble while moving away from each other.
Converging plates cause folds.Diverging plates cause fractures in the crust.


These are the older alluvium or old soil and form the largest part of the Northern Plains.The newer and younger deposits of the flood plains. Renewed every Year.
Presents a terrace like feature.Contains calcerous deposits locally known as Kankar.
Less fertileMore fertile


Western GhatsEastern Ghats
Mark the western edge of the Deccan PlateauMark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau
Continuous, can be crossed through the passes only.Discontinuous, irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
Higher; average elevation is 900−1600 metersLower; average elevation is 600 meters
It experiences orographic rain mostly in summer due to the summer monsoons. The climate is hot and moist.It receives rain mostly in winter through North-eastern monsoon. However, here the rain is lesser than the western strip.
Soil is highly fertile. Rice, spices, rubber and fruits like coconuts, cashew nuts etc. are grownSoil is not as fertile as western ghats. Rice, ground nuts, cotton, tobacco, coconuts etc. are grown

4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.


According to the Theory of Plate Tectonics, the Earth’s crust was initially a single, giant super-continent called Pangea. Gradually, Pangea began to split into a number of pieces due to convectional currents and formed Angaraland and Gondwanaland. Angaraland is the Eurasian land mass and Gondwanaland included India, Australia, S. Africa and S. America as one single land mass. The Indo-Australian plate separated from the Gondwana land due to convectional currents and drifted towards north. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

5. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular Plateau.


The major physiography divisions of India are :
(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi) The Islands

The Himalayan RegionThe Peninsular Plateau
Young fold mountains made from the uplift of the strata formed by the sedimentary rocks.Ancient landmass created after splitting of Gondwanaland.
Consists of the loftiest mountains and deep valleysConsists of broad and shallow valleys, and rounded hills
Composed of sedimentary rocks.Composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
It is the origin of perennial rivers.It has rainfed, seasonal rivers.
From the point of view of geology, this region forms an unstable zoneThis region forms a stable zone

6. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.


The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is formed of alluvial soil which is suitable for agriculture. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km. The plain is a densely populated physiographic division. The Northern Plain is broadly divided into three sections, Punjab Plains, Ganga Plains and Brahpmputra plains. According to the variations in relief features, the Northern plains can be divided into four regions. Bhabar, a narrow belt of pebbles which lie at the foot of Shivaliks. Terai, lie next to Bhabar which a wet and marshy area with wildlife and forests. Bhangar is made up of older alluvium plain which rises above the level of the flood plains. Khadar is a younger alluvium of the flood plains.

7. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
(ii) The Central Highlands
(iii) The Island groups of India


(i) The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes called barchans. This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year. It has arid climate with low vegetation cover. Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon after they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea. Luni is the only large river in this region.

(ii) The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada River covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravali range on the northwest. The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east.  The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the Damodar River.

(iii) India has two main island groups, namely Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar island. The Lakshadweep consists of many small islands located opposite the Kerala coast in the Arabian Sea. The islands of this group are formed of coral deposits. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, on the other hand, are larger in size. They are more in number and more widely scattered. These islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.

Map Skills

On an outline map of India show the following.
(i)Mountain and hill ranges – the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali, and the Cardamom hills.
(ii) Peaks – K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and the Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus, Chotanagpur and Malwa
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands



Locate the peaks, passes, ranges, plateaus, hills, and duns hidden in the puzzle.Try to find where these features are located. You may start your search horizontally, vertically or diagonally.






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