NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5 – The Fundamental Unit of Life

Here we provide NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5 – The Fundamental Unit of Life for English medium students, Which will very helpful for every student in their exams. Students can download the latest NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5 pdf. Now you will get step by step solution to each question.

 Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
1.Size: generally small ( 1-10 µm) 1 µm== 10-6 m1.Size: generally large (5-100 µm)
2.Nuclear region: poorly defined because of the absence of a nuclear membrane, and is known as nucleoid2.Nuclear region: well-defined and surrounded by a nuclear membrane
3.Chromosome: single3.More than one chromosome
4.Membrane-bound cell organelles are absent4.Membrane-bound cell organelles such as mitochondria, plastids, etc., are present

Page No: 65

1. Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic material?


Mitochondria and plastids

2. If the organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence, what will happen?


If the organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence then cell will not be able to perform the basic functions like respiration, nutrition, excretion etc. This may stop all the life activities and may result in its death.

3. Why are lysosomes known as suicide bags?


Lysosomes are called suicide bags because in case of disturbance of their cellular metabolism they digest their own cell by releasing own enzymes.

4. Where are proteins synthesized inside the cell?


The proteins are synthesized in the Ribosome inside the cell.

Page No: 66


1. Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from animal cells.


Animal cellPlant cell
They do not have a cell wall.They have a cell wall made up of cellulose.
They do not have chloroplast.They contain chloroplast.
They have centrosome.They do not have centrosome.
Vacuoles are smaller in size.Vacuoles are larger in size.
Lysosomes are larger in number.Lysosomes are absent or very few in number
Prominent Golgi bodies are present.Subunits of Golgi bodies known as dictyosomes are present.

2. How is a prokaryotic cell different from a eukaryotic cell?


Prokaryotic cellEukaryotic cell
Most prokaryotes are unicellular.Most eukaryotes are multicellular.
Size of the cell is generally small (0.5- 5 µm).Size of the cell is generally large (50- 100 µm).
Nuclear region is poorly defined due to the absence of a nuclear membrane or the cell lacks true nucleus.Nuclear region is well-defined and is surrounded by a nuclear membrane, or true nucleus bound by a nuclear membrane is present in the cell.
It contains a single chromosome.It contains more than one chromosome.
Nucleolus is absent.Nucleolus is present.
Membrane-bound cell organelles such as plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, etc. are absent.Cell organelles such as mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, etc. are present.
Cell division occurs through binary fissionCell division occurs by mitosis.
Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria and blue-green algae.Eukaryotic cells are found in fungi, plants, and animal cells.

3. What would happen if the plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?


If the plasma membrane ruptures or breakdown then the cell will not be able to exchange material from its surrounding by diffusion or osmosis. Thereafter the protoplasmic material will be disappeared and the cell will die.

Page No: 67

4. What would happen to the life of a cell if there was no Golgi apparatus?


Golgi apparatus has the function of storage modification and packaging of the products. If there is no Golgi apparatus then the packaging and transporting of materials synthesized by cell will not happen.

5. Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why?


Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of cells because energy required for various chemical activities needed for life is released by mitochondria in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules.

6. Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesized?


Lipids are synthesized in Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and the proteins are synthesized in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).

7. How does an Amoeba obtain its food?


Amoeba takes in food using temporary finger-like extensions of the cell surface which fuse over the food particle forming a food-vacuole as shown in figure. Inside the food vacuole, complex substances are broken down into simpler ones which then diffuse into the cytoplasm. The remaining undigested material is moved to the surface of the cell and thrown out.

How Amoeba obtain its food

8. What is osmosis?


Osmosis is the process in which water molecules moves from the region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through a semi permeable membrane.

9. Carry out the following osmosis experiment:

Take four peeled potato halves and scoop each one out to make potato cups. One of these potato cups should be made from a boiled potato. Put each potato cup in a trough containing water. Now,
(a) Keep cup A empty
(b) Put one teaspoon sugar in cup B
(c) Put one teaspoon salt in cup C
(d) Put one teaspoon sugar in the boiled potato cup D.

Keep these for two hours. Then observe the four potato cups and answer the following:
(i) Explain why water gathers in the hollowed portion of B and C.
(ii) Why is potato A necessary for this experiment?
(iii) Explain why water does not gather in the hollowed out portions of A and D.


(i) Water gathers in the hollowed portions of set-up B and C because water enters the potato as a result of osmosis. Since the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than the cell, the water moves inside by osmosis. Hence, water gathers in the hollowed portions of the potato cup.

(ii) Potato A in the experiment acts as a control set-up. No water gathers in the hollowed portions of potato A.

(iii) Water does not gather in the hollowed portions of potato A because potato cup A is empty. It is a control set-up in the experiment.
Water is not able to enter potato D because the potato used here is boiled. Boiling denatures the proteins present in the cell membrane and thus, disrupts the cell membrane. For osmosis, a semi-permeable membrane is required, which is disrupted in this case. Therefore, osmosis will not occur. Hence, water does not enter the boiled potato cup.

All Chapter NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Science


All Subject NCERT Solutions For Class 9


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