NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life

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ClassClass 12
ChapterChapter 16
Chapter NameChemistry in Every Day Life
Number of Questions Solved37
CategoryNCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life

This chapter deals with the principles of chemistry in everyday life. All the products such as soaps, detergents have an organic composition. All our daily activities are controlled by chemicals. This chapter gives some interesting facts about the products we use in our daily lives and how are they controlled by the chemicals.

The students are advised to go through the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemstry for better understanding of the concepts provided in the chapter.


Question 1:
Sleeping pills are recommended by doctors to the patients suffering from sleeplessness but it is not advisable to take their doses without consultation with the doctor. Why?
Sleeping pills contain drugs which may be tranquilizers or antidepressants. They affect the nervous system and induce sleep. However, if these doses are not properly controlled, they may create havoc. They even adversely affect the vital organs of the body. It is advisable to take these sleeping pills under the strict supervision of a doctor.

Question 2.
With refrence to which classification has the statement “ranitidine is an antacid”, been given?
This statement refers to the classification of drugs according to pharmacological effect because any drug which will be used to neutralise the excess acid present in the stomach will be called an antacid.

Question 3.
Why do we require artificial sweetening agents?
The commonly used sweetening agent i.e., sucrose is a carbohydrate with molecular formula C12H22O11. Since it has high calorific value, it is not recommended to the patients, diabetics in particular which require low calorie diet. Most of the artificial sweeteners are better than sucrose but hardly provide any calories to the body. These are being used as substitutes of sugar.

Question 4.
Write chemical equations for preparing sodium soap from glyceryl oleate and glyceryl palmitate. Structural formulas of these compounds are given :
(i) (C15H31COO)3C3H5 (Glyceryl palmitate)
(ii) (C17H33COO)3 C3H5 (Glyceryl oleate)
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life t4

Question 5.
Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following molecule which is a detergent. Also identify the functional group(s) present.
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NCERT Exercise

Question 1.
Why do we need to classify the drugs in different ways?
Drugs are to attack different targets which are the biomolecules from which our body is made. Moreover, the drugs also differ in action. Therefore, there is a genuine necessity to classify the drugs in different ways.

Question 2.
Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.
Drugs interact with macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids thus these macro molecules are called drug targets. These macromolecules perform various functions in the body for example, proteins perform several roles in the body. Proteins which act as biological catalysts are called enzymes, those which are involved in communication system are called receptors. Carrier proteins carry polar molecules across the cell membrane. Nucleic acids have coded genetic information in the cell whereas lipids and carbohydrates form structural part of cell membranes.

Question 3.
Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.
The different macromolecules or biomolecules which are used as drug targets are carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids. Out of these, enzymes are the most significant because their deficiency leads to many disorders in the body.

Question 4.
Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors?
Some drugs can cause side effects when drug binds to more than one type of receptor. Therefore, doctor’s consultation is must to choose the right drug that has the maximum affinity for a particular receptor site to have desired effect. Dose of the drug taken at a time is also crucial because some drugs in higher doses act as poisons and may cause death.

Question 5.
Define the term chemotherapy. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2008)
Chemotherapy means the treatment of the disease by means of chemicals that have specific effect upon the disease causing micro-organisms without harming the friendly micro-organisms or bacterias which the body needs.

Question 6.
Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active sites of enzymes ?
These are different inter-molecular forces like dipolar forces, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals’ forces etc. The receptor targets have specific roles to perform. They help in transferring message from messengers to the cell. The messengers are in fact chemical compounds which are received by the active sites of the receptor proteins that project out of the surface. In order to accommodate these, the receptors may undergo a change in shape. The receptors are held by the active sites also called binding sites. Once the message is transferred to the cells.

Question 7.
While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other?
Drugs are designed to cure some ailment in one organ of the body do not affect the other because they work on different receptors. For example, secretion of histamine causes allergy. It also causes acidity due to release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Since antiallergic and antacids drugs work on different receptors, therefore, antihistamines remove allergy while antacids remove acidity.

Question 8.
Low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression. What type of drugs are needed to cure this problem ? Name two drugs (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2008 Supp.)
Low level of noradrenaline which acts as a neurotransmitter reduces the signal sending ability to the nerves and the patient suffers from depression. Antidepressants are needed to give relief from depression. These are also called tranquilizers or neurologically active drugs. The two specific drugs are iproniazid and phenelzine.

Question 9.
What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotic? Explain.
Broad spectrum antibiotics are the drugs which are effective against a large number of harmful micro-organisms causing diseases.
Chloramphenicol It is a broad spectrum antibiotic, isolated in 1947. It is rapidly absorbed from the gastro intestinal tract and hence can be given orally. It is very effective against typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, certain form of urinary infections, meningitis and pneumonia.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life t8
Chioramphenicol is quite easy to synthesise. Therefore, most of the chioramphenicol available in the market is synthetic.

16.10. How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give one example of each.
Ans: Antiseptics are chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms and may even kill them but they are not harmful for human or animal tissues. For example, dettol and savlon. They are generally applied on wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Furacin and soframycin are well known antiseptic creams.
Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill microorganisms but are not safe to be applied to the living tissues. These are generally used to kill microorganisms present in the drains toilets, floors, etc. Some common examples of disinfectants are phenol ( 1% solution) and chlorine (0.2 to 0.4 ppm).

Question 11.

Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium bicarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxides ?
Both sodium bicarbonate and hydroxides of magnesium or aluminium are very good antacids since they neutralise the acidity in the stomach. But their prolong use can cause the secretion of excessive acid in the stomach. This may be quite harmful and may lead to the formation of ulcers. Both cimetidine and ranitidine are better salts without any side effect.

Question 12.
Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant.
About 0.2 per cent solution of phenol can act as antiseptic whereas about 1.0 per cent solution of the same can act as disinfectant.

Question 13.
What are the main constituents of Dettol?
The main constituents of antiseptic dettol are chloroxylenol and terpenol.

Question 14.
What is tincture of iodine? What is its use?
Tincture of iodine is a dilute solution of iodine (2 to 3 per cent) prepared in ethanol.
It is a powerful antiseptic particularly in case of fresh wounds.

Question 15.
What are food preservatives?
Chemical substances which are used to protect food against bacteria, yeasts and moulds are called preservatives. For example, sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite.

Question 16.
Why is use of aspartame restricted to cold foods and drinks?
Aspartame is a very good sweetener for foods and drinks. But its use is restricted to cold stuff only. In case these are hot, the sweetener may decompose and it may not be effective any more. It is a very successful and commonly used artificial sweetener. As stated above, it is nearly 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. However, it can be used in soft drinks and cold foods only since it decomposes upon heating. Chemically aspartame is the methyl ester of dipcptide formed by the action of aspartic acid with phenylalanine.

Question 17.
What are artificial sweetening agents ? Give two examples.
Carbohydrates in the form of sugar (sucrose) are the traditional sweeteners and are the essential constituents of our diet. In the present life style, people lack physical activities and exercise and it becomes rather difficult to burn the extra calones that are produced by the carbohydrates. Chemists have provided certain chemicals known as artificial sweeteners which provide the desired sweet taste io the food articles but hardly affect the calorie intake by the body. The most popular among the artificial sweeteners is saccharin which is nearly 550 times more sweet than the cane sugar. It is a boon for the diabetic patients who donot want to take carbohydrates (sugar) which is likely to increase the calories. It is infact, a life saviour for these patients and is in the form of sodium or calcium salt which is water soluble. These days, a number of other sweeteners are also available, e.g.. Aspartame, Alitame, Sucrolose etc.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life t9
(a) Aspartame: It is a very successful and commonly used artiticial sweetener. As stated above, it is nearly 100 times as
sweet as cane sugar. However, it can be used in soft drinks and cold foods only since it decomposes upon heating. Chemically
aspartame is the methyl ester of dipeptide formed by the action of aspartic acid with phenylalanine.
(b) Sucrolose: The artificial sweetener as the name suggests is a trichioroderivative of sucrose. It is better, than
aspartame in the sense that it can be used in hot food at the cooking temperature, since it does not decompose on heating.
Moreover, it does not provide calories.

Question 18.
Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient.
Saccharine is the well known sweetening agent which is more than 550 times sweet as compared to sucrose (or sugar). It is commonly used in the preparation of sweets for diabetic patients. Actually, it is not a carbohydrate. Now better sweetening agents are also available.

Question 19.
What problem arises by using alitame as artificial sweetener?
Alitame is no doubt, a very potent sweetener. Its sweetening capacity is more than 2000 times as compared to ordinary cane sugar or sucrose. But sometimes, it becomes quite difficult to control the sweetness level in the food which is actually desired.

Question 20.
Why are detergents called soapless soaps?
Detergents are called soapless soaps because they resemble soaps in their cleansing action but they donot contain the usual chemical contents of soaps i.e., sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. In other words, we can say that they behave as soaps without being actually soaps.

Question 21.
Explain the following terms with suitable examples.
(a) Cationic detergents
(b) Anionic detergents
(c) Neutral detergents.
1. Anionic Detergents: These detergents contain anionic hydrophilic groups. These are generally made from long-chain alcohols which are reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid to form alkyl hydrogen suiphates. These are then neutralised with alkali to give water soluble salts.
A few examples are listed below :
Sodium Alkyl Suiphates: These are the sodium salts of suiphonic acid esters of long chain aliphatic alcohols which normally contain 10 to 15 carbon atoms. The alcohols are formed from fats and oils as a result of hydrogenolysis.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life t10
Sodium Alkyl Benzene Suiphonates: A common detergent belonging to this class is Sod – p – dodecyl benzene sulphonate. It is obtained from benzene by reacting with dodecyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 acting as catalyst.
The different steps involved are as follows :
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2. Cationic Detergents: In these detergents, the hydrophilic group is of cationic nature. These are generally acetates, chlorides or bromides of quaternary ammonium CH CH CH B salts. The cationic part enclosed in bracket contains long hydrocarbon chain. These  detergents have germicidal qualities and are quite expensive as well, The cationic CH3 detergents are present in hair conditioners. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
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3. Non-ionic or neutral Detergent: These detergents are simply long chain organic compounds and are esters in nature. For example, stearic acid and polyethylene glycol react to form a non-ionic detergent.
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Non-ionic detergents contain polar groups and form hydrogen bonds with water. Some dishwashing liquids contain non-ionic detergents.
The field of detergents is very vast because of their immense utility. Companies engaged in their manufacture are spending huge amount of money to bring products of better quality.

Question 22.
What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents ? Give an example of each. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2008, 2009)
Detergents are non-biodegradable in the sense that they cannot be degraded or decomposed by the micro-organisms. They mix with water present in rivers, ponds, lakes etc. as such without getting decomposed and thus cause pollution problems. The biodegradable detergents are the ones which can be degraded. These are being synthesised by reducing the branching of the chain. Sodium n-dodecylbenzene sulphonate is a biodegradable detergent. Even soaps act as biodegradable detergents.

Question 23.
Why do soaps not work in hard water?
Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts. Therefore, in hard water soaps get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soaps which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass.

Question 24.
Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of water?
Soaps can be used to check hardness of water as they will form insoluble precipitates of calcium and magnesium salts on reacting with hard water. Since detergents do not form any precipitate, they cannot check hardness of water.

Question 25.
Explain the cleansing action of soaps.
In order to understand the cleansing action of soaps let us try to analyse how the clothes become dirty. They first become oily because of the perspiration coming out of the skin and also from the organic matter dispersed in the atmosphere. Dust particles stick to oil drops and the clothes become dirty. In order to wash these, they are dipped in water and soap is applied.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Every Day Life t14
In solution, it dissociates to give carboxylate ions (RCOO) and the cations (Na+). The alkyl portion which contains a long chain of hydrocarbons is a tail pointing towards the oil drops while the COO portion is the head directed towards water. This is quite evident from the figure where the solid circles (.) represent the polar groups and the wavy lines represent the alkyl portions. This formation is known as micelle and helps in forming a stable emulsion of oil and water by acting as a bridge between the two. The oil droplets along with the particles of the dirt get detached from the fibres of the clothes and pass into the emulsion. In this manner, the clothes become free from dust or dirt. The cleansing action of the soap is depicted in the Fig. 5.15.
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Question 26.
If water contains dissolved calcium bicarbonate, out of soaps and synthetic detergents, which one will you use for cleansing clothes ?
Calcium bicarbonate makes water hard. Soap (RCOONa) will react with the salt to form corresponding calcium salt which will be precipitated and wasted. The synthetic detergents are chemically different from soaps. They will not react with the calcium bicarbonate and can be used for cleansing dirty clothes without being precipitated. In other words, there will be no wastage when the detergents are used.
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Question 27.
Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following compounds.
(a) CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3Na+
(b) CH3(CH2)15-N+(CH3)3Br
(c) CH3(CH2)16-COO(CH2CH2O)nCH2CH2OH
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